Abiotic overwintering problems of amenity turf grasses

H÷fundur┌tgefandi┌tgßfußr┌tgßfusta­ur
Smith J. Drew, Kaurin ┼seB˙na­arfÚlag ═slands, BŠndaskˇlinn ß Hvanneyri, Rannsˇknastofnun landb˙na­arins, Rannsˇknast÷­ SkˇgrŠktar rÝkisins, Tilraunast÷­ hßskˇlans Ý meinafrŠ­i, Vei­imßlastofnun1989ReykjavÝk
Rit┴rgangurT÷lubla­Bls.
B˙vÝsindi225-29

gr-buv2-jds&ak.PDF

Frß vefstjˇra: Greinina Ý heild sinni er a­ finna Ý pdf-skjalinu hÚr a­ ofan

ABSTRACT

The paper summarizes the regional differences in abiotic winter injuries and the relative cold hardiness of amenity turf grass species. Practical advice is given for the determination of the causes of abiotic winter damages and the reduction of these damages.

Key words: abiotic winter injuries, turf grasses.

YFIRLIT

ËlÝfrŠnar kalskemmdir Ý gr÷sum Ý grasfl÷tum og Ý■rˇttasvŠ­um

═ greininni er gefi­ yfirlit yfir landfrŠ­ilega dreifingu ˇlÝfrŠnna kalskemmda og mismunandi frost■ol grastegunda Ý grasfl÷tum og Ý■rˇttasvŠ­um. Gefnar eru hagnřtar lei­beiningar til a­ greina orsakir ˇlÝfrŠnna kalskemmda og rß­ til a­ draga ˙r slÝkum ßf÷llum.

INTRODUCTION

Ruckenbauer (1974) divided winter injury of grasses into three categories:
    1. Direct freezing injury comprising a) low-temperature killing because of inadequate inherent cold resistance or inadequate hardening, b) freezedrying or the combined effects of cold and dehydration by wind and c) spring injury resulting from diurnal variation in temperature.

    2. Snow damage resulting from the smothering effect of a long duration snow cover combined with an ice crust.

    3. Indirect frost and snow injury comprising a) frost heaving and root tearing resulting from alternate freezing and thawing of the soil b) ice burn resulting from strong solar radiation on ice covers and c) snow moulds and other fungi causing disease under the snow.